On the job professional development
One of the biggest factors in positively impacting student learning is teacher’s self efficacy and skill in communicating quality instruction. If you aren’t a natural communicator, this isn’t the easiest skill set to develop. With an increased emphasis placed on ELA (English Language Arts) and mathematics instruction at the elementary level, science instruction seems to have fallen through the cracks. The teachers at Willow Field Elementary in Liverpool, NY have developed a proposal to address that very issue. How do they plan on doing this? Through “Lesson Study.”
What is lesson study?
It’s also known as kenkyu jugyo in Japan, where the technique was developed. It’s focus is on teacher collaboration to discuss learning goals and planning actual classroom lessons. This is followed by observation and revision so that other teachers can benefit from it. According to their original proposal, a lesson study cycle begins with a team of educators who determine the content on which they want to focus for the purpose of preparing a research lesson. In this case, it is with a focus on science education, though the model can be adapted to fit any subject.
How does the project work?
The project team meets regularly to study and discuss the national, state and local standards and reviews educational research regarding the content. In Willow Field Elementary’s case, they’ve been studying the new National Framework for Science Teaching, recent journal articles from the field of elementary science education and consulting with the Department of Science Teaching at Syracuse University to become more knowledgeable in elementary science content and teaching practices. Using what they’ve learned, they will collaboratively write a lesson plan, which will be taught to a group of students while at the same time having the lesson video taped for further discussion. All of this is done with the end goal of improving instruction. How specifically? By starting to teach more science than in the past, teachers gain comfort and improve teaching effectiveness. When combined with studying the national framework, research literature, and the data they have collected about student’s learning process and outcomes, teachers can more easily pass on what they have learned to other professionals.
What did the teachers study?
Three questions, specifically, are guiding teacher learning in this project.
- How do we design science instruction that makes students’ thinking visible?
- How can we meet our students’ needs and simultaneously address the new science framework?
- How will evidence of students’ learning be used to help us revise our original lesson?
How did they find the time?
Because lesson study requires teachers have time to plan, observe and reflect with each other, scheduling is difficult. With the logistical challenges inherent in this model, they have certainly faced an uphill battle. Gearing up in August was required; team members needed time to plan. The project went into full swing of September 2012 with nine elementary school teachers and a building principal meeting a Syracuse University doctoral student and science education professor to discuss the overview of the Lesson Study process to those new to the method. Shortly after, they met to determine their over all research focus.
- Students will be problem-solvers.
- Students will be inventive, creative and curious.
- Students will be risk-takers.
To help focus their efforts, teachers broke into three smaller teams, each dedicated to a grade and content specific focus.
- 2nd Grade Science- Understanding the Specifics Matter (two second grade teachers, doctoral student)
- 4th/5th Grade Science- The Force of Magnetism (two 4th Grade and one 5th Grade teacher)
- 6th Grade Art – Observational Drawing to Support Sketching in Science Notebooks (two Art teachers, one 6th Grade and one 3rd Grade teacher)
Once the teams were in motion, they could follow the traditional model for the next semester. So after a year and a half of the program, how is lesson study impacting the students and teachers of Willow Field Elementary?
Impacting teachers, students, and administrators
With time, support and resources for lesson study, what were the teachers of Willow Field Elementary able to achieve?
- Teacher participants gained further pedagogical content knowledge with regard to science content knowledge, observational drawing and uses in science and, constructivist methods of teaching elementary science (versus direct instruction)
- Teacher participants expressed increased self-efficacy and confidence
- Students gained experience collecting data
- Students benefited from the many revisions to the lesson during the lesson study cycle
- Students engaged in authentic scientific experimentation
- Students gained content knowledge
- Students who volunteered on the Professional Development Day had the benefit of seeing their teachers as learners. They also experienced pride in playing a role in their teachers’ professional development.
In their project update, members wrote “Our lesson study team garnered increased support from the district administrators.” Seeing the model in action “allowed them to recognize the benefits of lesson study as an authentic model of professional development.”
How could the project be improved?
With all of the positive outcomes, members reflected on ways to improve on their experience. They found it especially challenging to differentiate lesson study for the experienced and novice participants, though in future iterations this problem may simply solve itself through teacher collaboration. Scheduling and logistics, as always, was a nightmare. But the biggest problem they faced was that the current school structures do not support lesson study mechanisms. In order to widely adopt this model for nationwide consumption, a massive overhaul of our education system would be needed. However, for the individual school this method can prove invaluable in improving teaching and communication skills thus facilitating improved learning.
- Lesson Study: How Can It Build System-Wide Improvement? (Lewis, 2008)
- What is Lesson Study? (Teacher’s College, Columbia University, Undated)
- Lesson Study (Wikipedia, 2012)
- A Mathematics Leader’s Guide to Lesson Study in Practice (EDC, 2010)
- Chicago Lesson Study Group (McDougal, 2011)
Schools in the News using Lesson Study
This entry was posted in Science, Teacher Development and tagged elementary education, job-embedded professional development, kenkyu jugoya, Lesson Study, National Framework for Science Teaching, observation, On the job professional development, science education, Syracuse University, teacher development, teachers learning from teachers, Willow Field Elementary.
One of the problems facing educators today is the lack of time for personal and professional development. With overcrowded classrooms and heavy course loads it has become very difficult for many teachers to hone their craft or improve their teaching skills. This is a problem the teachers surrounding Project Go! at Rowe Middle School in Portland, Oregon are trying to address. Their strategy? Take a proactive approach to change, by improving and sharing their teaching craft through lab classrooms. Project Go! involves an ongoing series of lab classes, opening classroom doors to coaching in the midst of teaching. With classes often at capacity and teachers being forced to take their own, limited, time for professional development this project takes bold steps toward teacher development.
How does it work?
The first step Project Go! has taken to ensure teachers and educators have the time for professional development is to write half day substitutes into the budget. That way a teacher isn’t required to come in on an evening or weekend and they can rest assured that some one is teaching their students. With this half day, the teachers are given the opportunity to participate in teaching labs. Teachers participate in a preliminary meeting, lab site learning and debrief. With teachers being given opportunities to participate in these half-day labs, Project Go! supports their goal that “every educator engages in effective professional learning everyday so every student achieves.” Instructional practices, behavior management techniques, and pacing are all things to be discussed and deconstructed for the benefit of the educator. When paired with ongoing assessments, the teachers quickly find themselves with more education resources at their fingertips.
Teachers need learning structures that empower them professionally and enable them to collaborate with colleagues. (2010, ASCD)
So what do these labs look like?
Each lab takes a half day: an hour for a pre-briefing/discussion of what will be seen, the actual teaching, and the debrief to name and discuss what was seen, analyze the teacher choices and the student engagement. This model integrates the professional learning along with the learning of their students who will be gleaning the direct benefits of their teacher’s professional development. Not only that, the students will get to observe the review process where the teachers discuss with each other on their progress as teachers, and at the same time giving the students a better understanding of the tools and methods that will be utilized in the future.
How is this program unique from other professional development or peer review proposals?
Project Go! supports the newest teachers in the profession, setting the environment of a school in which doors are open, risks are taken, feedback is honest and immediate change is an ongoing reality. Mid-career teachers, who have often gotten used to being the only adult in the room, will find it energizing, intellectually stimulating and welcoming to either share their practice or participate by watching and dialoguing about a colleagues craft. Veteran teachers are equally invited into an invigorating opportunity for growth; many veteran teachers have so much to teach our newer teachers but have no means in which to do so. By facilitating the purposeful opening of the teaching practice Project Go! provides a time and place for teachers to participate without hamstringing them by adding extra workload.
What has been learned in the three years this project has been operating?
According to their report, the program has had a significant affect on teacher learning and therefore on student learning.
“We are changing the way we provide professional development for teachers by making sure the work is being done in real classrooms, with real students, and in real time. This models the metacognitive processes that teachers go through as they plan, teach, and reflect. A pleasant and meaningful surprise that has manifested itself throughout the past three years has been our students observing and learning from our metacognition. Students share how much they learn from listening to the teachers dialogue with one another. They give us insight into what is helpful/not helpful in the process of teaching new information.”
That being said, they have not been without their challenges. Scheduling labs around different teachers classroom schedules has proven more difficult than anticipated. The educators also have some worry over the sustainability of the project, due to the sub coverage. This lead them to reach out to Portland State University and form a partnership with the goal of identifying new strategies for sustaining this model. Though new strategies will take time to implement, teachers are encouraged by the practice of learning from colleagues in action.
All in all the teachers of Rowe Middle School have taken a very proactive approach to improving their craft and educational standards. Through collaboration and evaluation, these teachers have seen improvements in both their educator peers and students. With budgets growing ever tighter, this may be a difficult model for other schools to follow, but the rewards are clear. Any school wanting to create an environment of professional cross-pollination, where teachers are working with teachers and students gain the benefit should look into building a Project Go! of their own.
- Demonstrating Teaching in a Lab Classroom (2010, ASCD)
- Laboratory Classrooms – Frequently Asked Questions (2011, EBCERI)
- Learning by Observing Colleagues in Action (2006, Responsive Classrooms)
This entry was posted in Teacher Development and tagged demonstrating teaching, education, job-embedded professional development, lab classroom model, Lab Classrooms, learning in context, On the job professional development, professional learning, Professional learning community, Rowe MIddle School, supporting new teachers, sustainable professional learning, teacher development.